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LIFE CYCLE GREENHOUSE GAS PERSPECTIVE ON EXPORTING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FROM THE UNITED STATES: 2019 UPDATE SELINA ROMAN-WHITE, SRIJANA RAI, JAMES LITTLEFIELD, GREGORY COONEY, TIMOTHY J. SKONE, P.E. September 12, 2019 DOE/NETL-2019/2041 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any leg

based on the netl   percent of the life   parameters the following sections   pipelines and use compressors   ghgs from the key   parameters used to model   pipeline to a liquefaction   transmission in the united   unit for this unit  

Sources: IHS Markit

Pathway Classification

This section lists the Pathway type, Priority/ function areas, Sectors/ fields of life and People/ roles for the pathway.

Priority/ Function Areas:   Business & Industrial |
Sectors/ Fields of Life:   Economy-wide |

Pathway Information

This section lists the Categories, Goals, Measures and Actions included in the pathway.

Profiles:   this ups   the uncertainty   loss perspective   the capacity   the gwps   the results   this analysis   this factor   the works   a pipeline   this parameters   the compressor   the amount   the plant   a results   the technology   the purpose   lng assessment   the efficiency   the distances   ch factors   this mines   td total   the source   this stations   the contribution   seadistancesorg seadistances   the processes   the flows   pa analysis   the ocean   that region   this models   the combustion   the counts   a system   the requirements   the denominator   a facility   the segment   the questions   the volume   the use   the cases   a limitations   an aspects   the tanker   pa guidelines   the authors   the number   the days   the loss   this counts   the consumption   the temperature   the scenario   the values   the average   the construction   this stage   this point   the emissions   this model   the rate   the data   both exhibits   an exhibits   lng regasification   the generation   the sections   w rtsil   exhibit breakeven   the ghgs   the case   this processes   this exhibits   ie emissions   the activities   all scenarios   sf6 table   the panel   the unit   the type   the mix   the transmission   this step   the ship   the numerator   the parameter   al removal   the time   the materials   the modeling   the handling   the mass   it use   the relationships   netl guidelines   a site   any liability   the likelihood   the distance   pacitto assessment   the majority   the canal   the gas   appalachian fraction   it recommendation   that results   kghour perspective   the rates   a function   this page   the transport   the parameters   the facilities   the value   the points   the model   the assumptions   the scenarios   co2emwh perspective   no panel   the views   the contributions
Goals:   specify expected distance   leave keep enough   overlap regional scenario   detail key parameters   account total emissions   employ cooled process   represent conservative profile   show using emissions   obfuscate wise comparisons   contain unit processes   export propulsion trends   update laboratory pittsburgh   represent emission rate   expect capacity distribution   use short tons   leaf pretreatment facility   prevent plugging freezing   enter liquefaction facility   unload loading ups   remove improves impurities   expect distribution reference   use separate profile   expect high orleans   unload fuel consumption   utilize extraction methods   leave production site   represent input parameters   boost storage facilities   update warming potential   determine feed rate   represent gas throughput   surround gas reservoir   infringe rights reference   represent gas production   boost liquefaction transport   represent shortest distance   idlingmaneuvering load factor   improve heating value   show speciated drilldown   exit pipeline rate   energy power plants   combust parasitic stream   liquefy mission execution   begin ballast voyage   include reference line   loadingunloading exhibit parameters   anchor supply chain   export natural gas   export speciated emissions   process processing facility   require cleaning beneficiation   export key parameters   represent productionweighted composite   include dehydration removal   unload unit process   assume same range   mine short tons   export gas lng   represent final consumption   build power plant   define gathering facility   openended valves lines   exit regasification facility   determine cycle emissions   use extraction methods   use comprehensive set   display year timeframe   expect high china   stack increased percentage   use global warming   incur percent loss   use existing model   require corresponding factor   unload stored lng   knot reference pace   route associated emissions   compare expected results   define production facility   represent single pathway   provide energy heat   regasified global pace   include emission factors   model cycle analysis   reconcile conventions rate   include removal removal   represent larger scale   detail department doenetl   represent potential scenarios   consider fuel alternatives   use mining methods   inform taken likelihood   contribute significant fraction   boost processing transport   use unit process   represent alternative source   calculate energy requirements   transport consumed point   use same data   protect main exchanger   estimate energy requirement   accommodate ship sizes   normalize input parameters   use load factors   calculate appropriate losses   drive combustion compressors   determine actual distance   stratify production activity   represent c3mr technology
Measures:   fugitive emissions   estimate recovery   netl details   global warming   productionweighted composite   onetime construction   regional coal   temporary storage   surround areas   coal seam   parameter distributions   extract gas   upstream emissions   specific locations   potential scenarios   long distance   regional efficiency   20yr horizon   acquisition emissions   c3mr technology   dimensionless pipelines   uncaptured venting   square inch   rate content   molecular sieve   emission rates   deplete fields   russian gas   same markets   nonfull travel   convention rate   coalbed shale   vent gas   gwp comparison   identical boundaries   import gas   large emissions   coalfired plants   export scenarios   reciprocate pipeline   lade voyage   regional relative   downstream units   heavy hydrocarbons   average production   annual activity   same chain   multiple routes   common convention   20yr bases   selective removal   netl work   intermittent bleed   environmental indicators   voyage time   functional unit   fuel combustion   emission factors   netl guidelines   extraction methods   activity factor   flexible network   regasification facility   specific process   maximum gwp   subbituminous surface   pretreat gas   total consumption   cubic meter   usbased models   single operator   netl estimate   regional extraction   follow factors   average throughput   boiloff bog   high reference   give basin   viable option   pneumatic devices   feed rate   upstream share   lade time   reference line   ghg emissions   hazardous conditions   mine methods   lade journey   estimate netl   overall emissions   necessary steps   regional account   base pace   well drilling   most compressors   cubic feet   pretreatment technologies   export country   pretreatment facility   mission execution   removal removal   correspond scenarios   coal scenario   fluid accumulation   domestic chains   large driver   direct canal   netl analysis   high value   regional scenarios   complete list   intensive activities   energy requirements   foreign coal   equal weight   netl model   energy requirement   upstream parameters   great percent   more details   entire network   coalfired power   underground mining   receive country   wide range   modern methods   cycle emissions   prb coal   conventional gas   expect distance   parameter units   average plants   heavy recovery   power plants   unconventional wells   upstream reference   commercial process   gasfired plants   supplementary fuel   production scale   detail inventory   key steps   different sources   acid removal   extensive networks   underground coals   siberian region   ar5 perspective   same data   expect column   20yr comparison   liquefy power   short time   conservative profile   estimate rate   appalachian shale   large pipelines   follow pathways   potential generator   100yr basis   minimum gwp   uniform point   emission rate   regional plant   different boundaries   natural plant   active mining   breakeven points   production facility   overall uncertainty   cycle analysis   life emissions   open rack   support gathering   domestic plant   fugitive point   annual outlook   upstream rates   exact location   follow diagrams   upstream gas   load factors   error bars   medium export   natural resource   conventional average   reference pace   coal specifications   alternative source   negligible distances   southern regions   knot pace   final consumption   onsite storage   natural gas   bleed combustion   upstream rate   condense tonnehour   alternate definition   correspond uncertainty   upstream distribution   wise comparisons   production activity   coal beneficiation   supply chain   regional alternative   short distance   regional ghg   significant portion   subbituminous coal   100yr comparison   update unit   standard sulfur   additional details   open vaporizer   sea distances   separate profile   usable capacity   pneumatic device   refrigerant process   possible routes   right reference   heavy hydrocarbon   minimal emissions   thermal unit   natural plants   unit processes   full report   underground extraction   distribution reference   foreign production   appalachian gas   boost electricity   productionweighted average   terminal engineering   regional source   wellbore accumulation   medium scenarios   significant fraction   plausible export   large mines   standard rate   ga production   climatecarbon feedback   average impact   high gwp   load factor   low units   low bleed   production site   20yr gwp   total emissions   underground capacity   pipeline rate   lng chain   same amount   parasitic stream   unplanned downs   own reference   black thunder   large scale   overall guidance   emission combustion   nitrous oxide   comprehensive list   additional km   russian ghg   costly repairs   triangular segment   liquefy methodology   lng scenarios   follow assumptions   national grid   underlie data   unconventional production   same patterns   total distance   asian cases   expect values   major processes   raw material   episodic emissions   multiple wells   full diesel   low bounds   high distribution   strategic analysis   extraction profiles   same distance   underground techniques   c3mr process   recent study   natural scenarios   low impact   percent loss   station facilities   modele data   upstream stage   full cruise   regional scenario   open vaporization   russian perspective   boiloff losses   net efficiency   20yr basis   european cases   ultimate recovery   100yr time   triangular distributions   transport distance   follow mines   russian scenarios   liquid removal   direct emissions   ghg drilldown   dimensionless transmission   netl perspective   power plant   ghg perspective   ga throughput   late year   appropriate losses   siemen business   storage time   different technologies   upstream portions   fuel consumption   significant increase   intermittent combustion   thermal efficiency   key statistics   fuel input   regional power   tight gas   efficiency efficiency   separate combustion   conventional fraction   pipeline transport   different geographies   additional information   new production   remain chain   large generation   liquefaction facility   european regasification   same calculation   fuel alternatives   long distances   model parameter   single parameter   conventional methods   same range   russian transport   warm potential   coal profile   general guidance   scale parameters   additional transport   cascade process   ga emissions   full use   cradlethroughdelivery rate   bituminous coal   upstream extraction   lowrank coal   small scale   deliver gas   total capacity   cryogenic distillation   environmental science   netl carrier   key variables   boost networks   multiple sites   regional gas   average unit   intermittent devices   expect value   ga model   chinese coal   total results   expect units   local companies   upstream acquisition   dehydrator combustion   heavy removal   gather facility   foreign extraction   important parameter   exist infrastructure   common basis   conventional scenarios   give country   propulsion trends   multiple facilities   upstream profiles   internal loop   parameter stage   chemical engineering   lca model   compressor consumption   high levels   usregional gas   available data   available consumption   process facility   ballast voyage   same ranges   speciate emissions   fugitive losses   full tables   regional production   liquefy gas   high model   ultimate rate   tanker distance   clean beneficiation   only ghgs   intentional venting   use rate   liquid stage   above boundaries   subsurface storage   storage facilities   short tons   low emissions   comprehensive set   continuous i6   exist model   high bleed   different scenarios   cubic foot   liquid unloading   netl characterization   specific configuration   cycle results   lng distance   true number   annual gas   methane emissions   boost sites   single basis   gasfired plant   boundary difference   average extraction   personal communication   pipeline distance   annual throughput   key stages   blank perspective   low regasification   hhc removal   cool process   key parameters   expect results   update model   only fuel   foot execution   update characterization   downstream b   likely results   unit process   speciate drilldown   regional alternatives   feasible gas   intergovernmental panel   significant contributors   conventional mix   domestic pipeline   parametric model   well pad   net plant   netl number   triangular estimate   physical science   follow updates   heat value   require energy   low sulfur   underground longwall   relative emissions   prior incorporation   great distance   russian plant   continuous mining   actual distance   low values   bleed devices   average gas   netl models   asian markets   agr removal   ship sizes   emission sources   fugitive factor   possible distance   intermittent emission   cheniere energy   heat exchanger   coalfired plant   netl report   20yr time   ga reservoir   steady operations   consistent methodology   maritime science   uniform units   separate factors   follow manner   year timeframe   unconventional gas   partial list   small difference   raw materials   well bore   ga perspective   rate factors   dehydration removal   clean production   due values   european chain   upstream chain   purchase grid   russian scenario   ramp upramp   extract coal   modele parameters   russian cases   european markets   netl processes   largescale consumers   global pace   correspond factor   ga inventory   ultra diesel   bleed bleed   netl modeling   produce gas   commercial consumers   high emissions   main exchanger   key exhibit   rate boundaries   underground sources   ga gathering   permanent equipment   ga bog   thick seams   cumulative change   direct distance   100yr scenarios   upstream scenarios   total scenarios   geological formations   increase percentage   russian production   control devices   input parameters   state operations   electric generation   single pathway   high impact   available capacity   likely values   potential gwps   previous voyage   british unit   conventional shale   uncertainty bars   optimize process   conventional definition
Actions:   boost 1   surround reservoir   follow transmission   leave site   estimate requirement   capture chain   represent scale   represent throughput   represent production   expect distribution   scale stage   precooled refrigerant   include line   show account   maintain lng   leave introduction   model gas   contain levels   boost facilities   prevent freezing   doenetl20101446 http   modele bor   receive engineering   liquefy execution   terminal role   boost stations   exhibit gwps   assume range   process technology   thank representatives   represent source   regasified percent   drive compressors   thank remson2   maintain temperature   update potential   provide room   reliquify kg   capture gas   unload ups   include extraction   idlingmaneuvering factor   compare scenarios   calculate range   export gas   stack percentage   employ boundaries   generate power   energy communication   utilize methods   require beneficiation   equal those   represent rate   calculate time   use process   define boundaries   cool it   convert gas   utilize range   plug units   employ characterization   derive seam   exhibit 61   include pretreatment   ramp counts   avoid freezeup   leave perspective   transport point   process facility   show drilldown   use tons   calculate losses   keep ship   unload 25   involve injection   transport lng   contain ghgs   reduce temperature   prevent contamination   contribute fraction   represent scenarios   represent profile   energy plants   expect china   reconcile rate   combust stream   use compressors   focus marcogaz   openended lines   regasified mwhkg   hold equipment   exhibit emissions   drive uncertainty   inform likelihood   compare results   liquefy gas   deliver numerator   note srijana   loadingunloading parameters   boost pressure   anchor chain   protect exchanger   obfuscate comparisons   convert fuel   mine tons   send it   include storage   give gwps   build plant   define facility   compare difference   include emissions   use gwp   emit ng   sink agency   represent technology   hold thousands   leaf facility   unload lng   exhibit uncertainty   account emissions   specify distance   load 015   determine emissions   flare size   flow delivery   speed me   use warming   use information   include factors   report rates   enter facility   expect orleans   match power   prepare it   pass lng   use upramp   use parameters   represent portions   use stages   use factor   include removal   regasified pace   unload process   represent share   use range   overlap scenario   have distributions   process gas   infringe reference   export parameters   reflect perspective   represent process   change numerator   use distances   regasified b3   adjust it   represent consumption   require energy   extract methane   spend day   determine distance   receive emissions   establish bounds   model analysis   minimize losses   overlap emissions   characterize sources   produce amount   exit rate   require casing   include feedback   loadingunloading parameter   detail specifications   exhibit 62   follow drilling   use data   expect time   export lng   transport data   incur loss   overlap bars   expect parameters   reflect those   represent coal   use factors   inform bars   expect values   represent pathway   transport it   stratify activity   operate hours   export acronyms   accommodate sizes   methane emissions   show emissions   export trends   exhibit report   express results   match those   expect reference   move product   end users   require factor   remove impurities   employ process   estimate number   represent estimate   unload bog   doenetl20101446 department   increase emissions   exit facility   boost transport   provide heat   move gas   move lng   estimate content   receive technology   consider alternatives   receive gas   use methods   use set   ensure removal   incorporate profiles   use profile   represent distance   display timeframe   include co2   comprise emissions   knot pace   show points   vent tonnes   detail parameters   improve value   calculate emissions   compare range   contain processes   boost units   use concept   use model   involve combustion   route emissions   update pittsburgh   represent composite   export analysis   export emissions   export perspective   unload consumption   precede production   loadingunloading references   model scenarios   answer questions   represent parameters   use gwps   calculate requirements   provide perspective   normalize parameters   use coal   include operation   export department   transport gas   provide strength   detail doenetl   leave enough   determine rate   process storage   drive variable   boost gathering   begin voyage   stimulate unloading

Other Attributes

This section lists the details about pathway-specific attributes.