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The E15 Initiative: Strengthening the Global Trade and Investment System in the 21st Century Ricardo Mel ndez-Ortiz, Chief Executive, ICTSD Richard Samans, Member of the Managing Board, World Economic Forum EThe 15Initiative STRENGTHENING THE GLOBAL TRADE AND INVESTMENT SYSTEM FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Contents Synthesis Report 1. Executive Summary 2. Introduction 3. Boosting Global Growth And Employment 4. Reducing Commercial Frictions And Investment Uncertainty 5. Accelerating Sustainable De

access for all ldcs   years of this century   initiatives and the important   summary to help level   business in the wto   agreements through a model   report on the progress   partnership between the food   countries in the multilateral  

Sources: WEF

Pathway Classification

This section lists the Pathway type, Priority/ function areas, Sectors/ fields of life and People/ roles for the pathway.

Type: Forecasts
Priority/ Function Areas:   Law & Government People & Society |
Sectors/ Fields of Life:   Economy-wide |

Pathway Information

This section lists the Categories, Goals, Measures and Actions included in the pathway.

Profiles:   wto members   all licences   this arrangements   a report   another opportunity   a option   the partner   it regulation   a firm   uk provision   an countries   this patents   the pattern   the sector   a myriad   a field   development69 framework   the blocks   this levels   the regime   the forces   this actors   this communication   the impacts   both countries   the countries   the trick   the facilitation   a country   the proliferation   the diversification   the lack   the transition   the requirements   the initiative   a place   both groups   the governments   the culture   this measures   this performance   the creation   the buyer   all countries   subsidies96j cets   the shares   this questions   this proposals   the partnership   a share   the nature   this contribution   the cost   neither exercise   a indicator   the exemptions   solomon islands   it report   whose remediation   the balance   the means   the boom   the practices   this brand   a difference   the role   a policy   the field   its markets   a study   the axis   this mechanism   the revolution   the aim   this agreement   this relationship   the ability   this point   this process   apec members   a feature   the experts   this platforms   a circle   a approach   the internet   a paper   its governments   the world   the design   the flow   the steps   this products   the process   all nations   the dynamism   the sectors   a accord   its concerns   a system   its societies   this kind   a degree   such approach   a appeal   a difficulty   the erosion   this language   the costs   this linkages   this chains   the expertise   the schemes   the result   the organization   this progress   the scarcity   the execution   the consequence   a proposal   this sets   a agenda   the need   whose population   a step   the economies   that regulations   the papers   the path   this insight   the evidence   the situation   the problems   such initiative   a moratorium   the results   the estimate   the price   such group   the impetus   the agendas   an lcrs   this approach   this report   the niche   a programme   the opportunities   the application   the issue   the scope   the stalemate   the set   the report   the assumption   aditi team   the fund   the implementation   a extension   a growth   the fragmentation   the extent   this steps   the rate   the goal   the experience   the deployment   the topic   a increase   this enterprises   the challenge   the failure   the competition   the oceans   e15 manager   a review   you activities   the movement   this platform   the ratio   the billions   the complexity   the geometry   the bundling   the reviews   the unfccc   the level   the share   its partners   p products   the time   the community   wto settlement   samans member   the basis   the balancing   the system   this councils   this difficulties   this exercise   whose effects   the exchange   the groups   this assumptions   the controversy   the consequences   the vacuum   this initiative   the delivery   a group   its level   a number   a analysis   ldc gni   the aid   the slate   each country   its support   the reverse   a tax   the enterprises   the links   the relevance   the focus   the challenges   this volume   the dynamic   its base   the bowl   that influence   the development   ictsd member   the weight   such view   the agenda   the rules   such outcome   the impact   the proposal   a partnership   the agreement   the emphasis   a spectrum   this initiatives   this factors   the examples   the bulk   the characteristics   its proposals   the treatment   any policy   the economy   the country   such programme   each growth   the competitiveness   the targeting   this framework   a waiver   whose guidance   the group   this changes   the platform   a focus   the options   the information   the implications   this proposal   a priority   the source   the viability   the framework   the force   a party   this synthesis   a undertaking   the fleet   it deliberations   this indices   it elements   an policies   the coordination   this chapter   the actions   the interface   the disclosure   the conduct   the proposals   the integration   ref authors   the centre   the relationship   the work   the output
Goals:   upgrade own technologies   develop updated articulation   transform operating context   stimulate fresh look   resist new commitments   imply larger presence   establish required linkages   complement various efforts   enforce trade objectives   suggest covered factors   change policy framework   use extended approach   support significant boost   anticipate trade challenges   develop development data   exceed support levels   drive economic growth   reduce territorial emissions   sponsoringmentoring stability board   measure structural vulnerability   convene expert groups   establish chain partnership   adherence chain practices   support revenue collection   yield new efficiencies   create fertile environment   provide powerful example   develop addressing initiatives   assist country officials   reinforce important aspect   strengthen value chains   strengthen last agenda   improve performance competitiveness   realize complement efforts   include carbon budget   make inclusive agreements   pose evolve question   welcome oversight scrutiny   cover elements infrastructure   implement facilitation agreement   encompass investor protection   ensure trade response   shift world economy   customize nature inputs   register good performance   require prompt costing   impinge new initiative   address developing practices   undertake enhance reforms   prevent measures corruption   offer believe analysis   strengthen global system   produce clear definition   reduce carbon costs   include herfindahl index   develop model strategy   create facilitates environment   form value chain   coordinate property transfer   calculate productivity gains   use reasonable interval   develop taken steps   target consumption level   operate supply chains   assist adoption awareness   boost employment growth   expand regulatory cooperation   create new framework   improve increasing linkages   identify build practices   impact land use   face global system   deliver new agreement   use carbon pricing   drive climate mitigation   yield economic gains   achieve systemic acceleration   maximize market access   boost expert groups   extend market access   strike better balance   recognize carbon taxes   include system fragment   include reducing monitoring   hold average temperatures   encourage widest inclusion   reduce prevent existing   enhance conform capacity   complement bottom 88   support establishing investment   maximize developed countries   inform dispute settlement   modernize patchwork quilt   pursue massive scaleup   address unreported iuu   build raising buildings   address other side   establish value partnership   push trade flows   involve temporary movement   restrict undertaken mechanism   establish bilateral relationship   enforce environmental standards   expand information gathering   map value chains   retain power enterprises   invite competition authorities   require communicate ability   compound problem studies   provide conducive environment   confirm internet s   combat change activity   compromise cooperative action   strengthen notification requirement   create commercial complexity   underpin economic development   create transferred possibility   create separate aid   expand improving regulations   notify adopted measures   establish innovation zone   close global market   improve competitive abilities   support practical implementation   develop tax authorities   participate synthesis report   propose improved ways   implement carbon pricing   propose extensive agenda   assist others ldcs   maintain provide momentum   experience significant slowdown   embrace wider geometry   extend free access   create distortions frictions   play key role   develop including governments   create policy space   improve regulatory framework   increase doubled efforts   apply basic rules   encompass complemented mechanisms   require higher level   support single windows   create new complexity   bridge infrastructure gap   implement exchange proposal   support strategic deployment   include plays councils   meet standardsoriented demand   prompt searching soul   produce cost savings   vardhana senior associate   lag economic growth   embrace wider ecosystem   encounter entry barriers   develop developing initiatives   improve enabling environment   accredit new dimension   antidumping services regulation   support better modernize   guide partners ldcs   antidumping tariff schemes   create projected shortages   upgrade economic infrastructure   facilitate border flows   strengthen institutional aspects   accelerate wealthier counterparts   analyse changing nature   require systems approach   integrate goods services   conduct capacity constraints   complement facilitation agreement   develop related b   improve existing technologies   render actionable agenda   develop lack governments   level playing field   scale voluntary application   offer detailed set   establish pertaining rules   establish best practices   improve development performance   support proposes investment   address trade concerns   form establish clubs   use market power   find establish partner   maintain market share   use law ii   build critical mass   implement integrated initiatives   enable intended policies   require continuing stream   maximize growth potential   boost combating countries   establish advisory centre   invite own authorities   enhance understanding transparency   launch trade portal   limit adverse effects   operate business exporters   create safe harbour   enable wider impact   reduce increasing countries   play important role   represent institutional position   measure nutrition education   emphasize play role   expand investment trade   propose following agenda   build synergies capabilities   lose year billion   achieve sought benefits   eliminate based tariffs   affect production trade   drive much deeper   provide advice information   agree clean waiver   make sectoral approaches   regulate global economy   overlook major economies   enlist global system   ensure efficient provision   draft impact statements   launch formal process   construct shared agenda   include leveraging smes   stimulate technological development   lack legal expertise   enhance fundamental capabilities   provide consult platform   target recognizing carbon   make available information   adopt outlined reforms   accord identify status   launch facilitation understanding   safeguard counting legitimacy   coordinate maximizing countries   regulate investment trade   make aimed proposals   promote better understanding   construct new agenda   face different set   combine different components   prescribe impinge changes   spread labour practices   adopt digitallyenabled windows   address preventing failures   strengthen standards facility   minimize creates complications   achieve cover sdgs   implement attain programmes   exert decisive influence   integrate policy dimensions   andor rating agency   use policy framework   join accounting agreement   anticipate safe harbour   bi board fsb   give institutional index   rationalize trade arrangements   target production level   knowledge growing importance   reduce economic diversification   support working group   create permanent exception   establish simplify frameworks   enable functioning development   coordinate improve efforts   enable firms participation   support foreign investment   scale tax cooperation   enshrine specific set   coordinate degradation change   propose significant ways   take climate actions   change global alert   move value chain   grant accounting management   develop ambitious agenda   cover procedures processes   produce timely contribution   consider new direction   affect explicit aspiration   imply improve opportunity   reap market access   reduce associated concerns   host direct investment   attract capital technology   minimize resulting impact   develop capital markets   provide farreaching agenda   offer vast reservoir   prefer single set   ensure food availability   propose strengthened ways   span wide range   enable ready assessment   use automated system   target domestic firms   arise representing group   connect labour capital   generate summarized agenda   expand technology agreement   facilitate inclusive roadmap   address promoting distortions   support include objectives   cover financial sector   provide strong foundation   strengthen struggled introduction   reduce problems constraints   assume broader role   create implement agreement   adopt higher threshold   host research initiatives   represent largest investors   affect trade flows   address small number   address including issues   create institutional index   attain line coverage   diffuse improving progress   continue disappointing pattern   boost technological sophistication   design observer status   lose relevance legitimacy   match investment processes   develop regulatory frameworks   allow related subsidies   take broader approach   deploy wider array   develop sectoral agreement   provide address opportunity   catalyse progressive reintegration   boost new architecture29b   allow free flow   deepen regulatory cooperation   strengthen technological capacities   facilitate dissemination transparency   achieve escape momentum   contain take disciplines   establish cooperative network   stimulate option papers   build development expertise   identify large number   reduce average cost   provide larger number   salute expert group   identify following improvements   find microeconomic evidence   pose significant barrier   clarify regulatory initiatives   represent ongoing loss   identify taken ways   cover poverty gap   revive revised form   extend ongoing negotiations   capture main elements   make largest improvement   exchange funds information   evaluate resulting implications   plug financing gap   increase real gdp   jeopardize development process   bring leading experts   affirm provide permissibility   reinvigorate economic growth   provide required skills   undertake scoping exercise   ensure financial mobilization   implement comprehensive set   require supports infrastructure   encourage erode policies   strengthen supporting frameworks   play increasing role   ethe proposals references   make positive outcome   devise efficient policies   conduct strategic review   maintain hospitable environment   preserve policy space   evaluate competition consequences   indicate performance criteria   include competitive principles   rationalize fragmented universe   scale blended financing   provide support assistance   improve global efficiency   improve compliance capacity   assume greater sense   develop institutional index   produce services goods   escape quality capital   meet product standards   address emulate trend   identify strategic priorities   propagate production investment   reinstate modified version   share capacity building   integrate action orientation   form broad zone   undertake nonbinding commitments   improve socioeconomic conditions   sustain development growth   enable larger number   assemble examples evidence   open engage opportunities   implement minimis value   dominate markets policies   empower corresponding directorates   try wide variety   demonstrate similar degree   represent balanced tradeoff   influence enabling environment   harness technical capabilities   implement aimed measures   recognize close interrelationship   house local bank   involve additional years   supply energy services   embrace broader frame   fulfil fundamental objective   present relevant challenges   develop technical assistance   aggravate severe crisis   do available rankings   improve market access   contain recent proliferation   constitute innovations regulation   combat fish stocks   reduce large share   lower price wedge   establish agricultural fund   establish model agreement   pose security challenges   connect consumers businesses   commitment includes clarifications   monitor content requirements   vardhana senior centre   pay adding duties   reach facilitation agreement   enhance developing cooperation   operate robust framework   introduce technology transfer   appreciate wider ecosystem   increase global diffusion   enable energy transition   address ranging emissions   facilitate governed those   make available contracts   adapt trade regime   carve constructive path   facilitate trade investment   diminish harvesting fisheries   accelerate countries poverty   scale chain practices   streamline procedures processes   identify related products   dominate policy focus   create integrated platform   see undertake resurgence   help developing countries   make improve efforts   pursue contributed sense   develop comprehensive framework   concern expired subsidies   set selfreinforcing dynamic   increase simplicity transparency   offer wider range   establish common floor   draw broader range   stimulate aimed dialogue   develop strategic vision   cover large number   create propose goods   pool technical assistance   pursue limit efforts   increase raised tax   constitute climate action   trade fragmentation diversion   protect foreign investor   halve effective system   improve trading prospects   place resulting patents   facilitate includes improvements   create public system   stimulate judging exports   improve innovation productivity   promote current aid   take more decade   start business timorleste   strengthen global commons   address food insecurity   promote adaptation mitigation   sell services goods   drive virtuous circle   serve wider ecosystem   increase resource mobilization   reduce frictions uncertainty   meet common criteria   establish involving process   increase sustainable impact   see complex geometry   improve economic performance   increase bridging investment   inject unprecedented level   rule exist challenge   yield analytical papers   contain synthesis report   update global system   meet communication policies   reaffirm hold intentions   accelerate sustainable development   issue analysing report   maintain essential character   diffuse progress scale   promote chain approach   propose multitiered set   establish permanent moratorium   confront global challenges   stand better chance   require good deal   establish customs levels   expand facilitation agreement   serve consumer markets   keep welfare concerns   provide useful tool   implement companies rtas   boost economic growth   determine own methods   face environmental challenges   enable frameworks trade   establish conducive environment
Measures:   recent proliferation   foreign banks   direct effects   recent changes   phase programme   regulatory mismatches   relative weakness   actionable subsidy   select number   permissive rules   multijurisdictional mergers   major users   additional tonnes   partner institutions   large economies   associate services   graduation process   plurilateral approach   remarkable story   wtoplus benefits   economic communities   several insights   high authorities   industrial relations   immediate help   overall purpose   rational subsidies   relationshipspecific investments   certain taxes   cooperative action   advance countries   overarch objectives   innovation zone   operational decisions   dutyfree access   global temperatures   important dimension   late 1990s   outward countries   international commerce   such standards   continue stream   environment improvements   result patents   local markets   cross flows   jure basis   internetenabled trade   backward linkages   consequential agencies   online points   bespeak waiver   instrument technology   exploit stocks   regular review   much contribution   financial exclusion   common resource   simplicity transparency   relate products   international production   unfccc agreements   play field   efficiency gains   ongoing negotiations   capacity building   timelimited procedures   economic fact   vest interests   new agenda   major commitments   determine contributions   comprehensive framework   deepen reforms   ambitious agenda   such measures   wide array   appropriate measures   reason transparency   key values   standardize minimis   business exporters   intellectual disciplines   requirement lcrs   store carbon   prospective treaty   sustainable investment   legal changes   service regulation   minimal presence   international initiatives   next years   market access   social initiatives   climate agreement   impact statement   appropriate clarifications   foreign investor   multilateral negotiations   domestic tax   realtime communication   great competition   underlie conditions   lead practices   short order   externality mitigation   crucial opportunities   domestic resources   private sector   thematic groups   ghg emissions   primary universities   important elements   large bargain   international activity   digital policies   parallel scaling   continue expansion   heavy users   such schemes   retail services   diverse countries   extractive resources   external sources   repeat event   new sectors   large presence   intrinsic threat   clean energy   sme exports   streamline processes   scientific discovery   critical agreement   world economy   substantive investments   mutual recognition   new rules   grow countries   complex geometry   activate devices   encompass barriers   multiple times   consolidate framework   import technology   minimis levels   fragment system   robust framework   relate policies   annual rate   content requirements   basic abst   tbt agreements   intermediary liability   top performers   traderelated regulation   general agreements   global average   interest officials   diversify structure   key role   various kinds   close agreement   various elements   follow improvements   climate standards   fossil subsidies   informal cooperation   maximum ease   heighten importance   current aid   focal point   trade agenda   complex context   human rights   economic context   bilateral investment   wto agreement   economic forum   various efforts   industrial policy   general agreement   advocacy strategy   decisive influence   progress scale   international policy   chain partnership   such climate   trade objectives   effective services   domestic market   global progress   readiness index   great conformity   kyc process   positive spillovers   main elements   environmental institutions   strong growth   benchmark country   forecast levels   temporary period   wide system   high level   developmental implications   policy objectives   important contributors   affect parties   low scores   attendant indicators   facilitation understanding   multinational companies   first year   annual rents   critical function   think pieces   concrete steps   request data   crude oil   major gains   wealthy countries   large shares   crossborder effects   global growth   potential base   uncoordinated implementation   disappoint pattern   financial contributions   privatepublic partnerships   durable development   broad role   historical pattern   major economies   fastpaced environment   economic institution   institutional assistance   domestic realities   digital economy   new limit   modest collection   temporary movement   blend finance   international levels   multiple regions   worldclass experts   specific chains   formal negotiation   international model   possible outcome   strategic deployment   strong likelihood   serious barrier   bilateral treaties   practical issues   current design   privacy framework   comprehensive information   advisory committee   tax collection   underlie papers   recent experience   process standards   inclusive agreements   enable country   underlie skills   consultative board   sustainable buildings   eminent persons   global networks   economic progress   broad approach   additional proposals   positive relationship   change patterns   integrate system   public support   regulatory concerns   regional protection   several economies   environmental agreements   aggregate effect   great use   simple ones   strategic priorities   transparent procedures   e15initiative coconveners   high clubs   local bank   such areas   national borders   global stocktake   certain criteria   investorstate contracts   nonactionable subsidies   competitive liberalization   negative impact   institutional arrangements   electronic transmission   intellectual property   fastestgrowing component   bind topdown   exchange proposal   parallel improvements   annual trade   unreported fishing   embody emissions   diversify services   specific improvements   relevant standards   unfccc agreement   new norms   timesensitive goods   recent progress   national procedures   destructive management   integrate mode   new market   climaterelated subsidies   significant checks   international agreements   equatorial guinea   economic concentration   traditional markets   market failures   complex divisions   fertile environment   main drivers   thematic group   sheer size   analytic papers   multitiered set   regional initiative   institutional capacity   slow rate   global market   immense difficulty   forthcoming period   national services   farreaching agenda   trade remedies   individual goods   formal reviews   market share   active platforms   increase innovation   small value   national governments   international chains   common ground   many governments   large improvement   more remittances   immediate option   common standard   poor countries   such activities   concerted action   green subsidies   domestic industry   sustainable goals   current concentration   strong investment   climate action   clean subsidies   exist etss   important part   sme trade   investment regime   exist opportunities   specific subsidies   global criteria   follow agenda   multilateral banks   automatic clearance   global concerns   quota access   key principles   unprecedented level   technical capabilities   exist chains   academic experts   multiple organizations   new dimensions   far clarification   separate aid   regulatory structures   vast scope   single windows   different kinds   production sharing   clear rules   current level   important locations   work programme   likeminded countries   sustain investment   past decade   current configuration   enable mandates   different implications   clean waiver   executive principles   free flow   worldwide pace   chain development   strong potential   far ways   additional innovations   particular employer   possible hassle   revise form   analogous frameworks   careful analysis   disguise protectionism   african exporters   many years   bilateral programmes   new forms   transaction costs   regional rules   great capabilities   critical imperatives   sustainable projects   increase competition   international effort   such value   new standards   lead countries   competition monitoring   large number   good performance   official support   good indicator   global regulation   full spectrum   good practices   possible inclusion   motivate countries   high threshold   additional resources   key inputs   commercial friction   international bodies   consumer markets   chief officer   major way   integrate value   emerge countries   economic index   concerted efforts   electronic trade   full accelerator   various processes   manufacture activities   industrial sectors   good skills   good information   global stamps   middleincome countries   multiple opportunities   middle countries   plurilateral talks   new arrangements   regulatory institutions   abusive behaviour   border flows   longstanding concerns   dispute settlement   multilateral rules   civil society   rapid growth   such subsidies   economic policymaking   little use   wide diffusion   full advantage   selective issues   international settlements   small island   sustainable agreement   wide question   broad context   firm ones   major source   economic dimension   central element   technical barriers   more support   aspirational markets   economic development   total oda   high ambition   available rankings   actual advantages   least hassle   public finance   sustainable agenda   international trade   appropriate policies   fund levels   large share   new production   national contributions   foreign markets   tpp commitments   particular advances   lowgrowth countries   international law   outward investors   right balance   strong foundation   critical challenges   important domains   general exceptions   individual group   fish stocks   productivityenhancing technologies   model strategy   new opportunities   market policies   right vehicle   policy space   reduce rates   individual states   embody taxes   willing countries   similar plans   executive community   competitive principles   official assistance   complex chain   labour productivity   illegal fishing   solidarity fund   sophisticate products   minimis value   low level   single aid   high growth   human capital   declined9 growth   low fertility   migratory species   subsidiary body   great certainty   potential effects   contractual obligations   public welfare   restrictive measures   timelimited clause   promotion capabilities   encompass inputs   invert ucurve   analogous blueprint   comprehensive platform   genuine concerns   sectoral agreements   such support   total sales   lowyielding debt   mostfavoured nation   financial services   participate nations   competitive environment   ready assessment   clear boundaries   international dimension8   considerable success   transformational benefits   new generation   possible services   factor capabilities   political insurance   policy environment   unprecedented review   particular frameworks   national polities   major plank   different markets   framework customs   new challenges   individual schedules   major assistance   consultative process   competitive advantages   far issues   arbitrary measures   natural gas   industrial development   enable environment   trade concerns   public goods   skill personnel   firm industry   regulatory frameworks   low diversity   apply science   national values   regulatory policy   return goods   grand undertaking   comprehensive points   local investment   new priorities   expand array   timelimited pledges   action agenda   energy services   particular support   online platforms   skill processes   recent work   source use   various activities   low category   conceptual ease   interest stakeholders   international ruling   international level   plurilateral zone   serious challenges   reference price   major constituency   regulatory initiatives   global architecture   formal machinery   absolute poverty   tax cooperation   internetenabled providers   current framework   high potential   such requests   swift pace   new erosion   important constraints   external markets   trade flows   regional blocs   broad participation   permanent moratorium   international community   test rules   single points   commercial frictions   productexport base   new framework   global negotiations   regulatory principles   financial assistance   national level   capacitybuilding interventions   ongoing process   structure programs   carbon pricing   efficient policies   gross income   common agreement   interim clause   particular areas   new markets   long run   accelerate reforms   respective agreements   natural resources   source trade   inward investment   plurilateral negotiations   external group   private investment   trade arrangements   latter half   economic transactions   vulnerable employment   public interest   many elements   assess stocks   international policies   useful tool   direct impacts   popular example   double requirement   integrate market   interoperable windows   variable geometry   specific provisions   key issues   key governments   concerted agenda   structural shift   mind developments   shift frameworks   additional progress   bilateral relationship   foreign account   own network   domestic markets   middle income   political influence   common agenda   humanitarian aid   country authorities   same time   noncommercial objectives   competitive value   new commitments   cumulation zone   tariff liberalization   multilateral agreement   environmental goods   cooperative architecture   environmental policy   multilateral agenda   similar requirements   informal dialogue   opensource dynamic   compete blocs   global diffusion   societal value   custom levels   ensue agreement   institutional frameworks   open practice   respective group   share agenda   general public   last years   timely contribution   multilateral action   specific ones   technological complexity   full costing   trade challenges   global concern   public labour   rich countries   indirect tax   regional cooperation   healthy levels   important tool   weak standards   such negotiations   great mobilization   previous sections   10th meeting   main areas   determine priorities   key elements   slow pace   climaterelated subsidy   sectoral mapping   formal lcrs   improve convergence   unintended barriers   major transformation   overlap membership   carbon costs   businessfriendly environment   own right   own methods   welfare concerns   longterm decline   policy adjustments   important policy   economic integration   nondiscriminatory norms   local economy   modify version   food availability   renewable subsidies   different fields   financial regulators   impact statements   postal services   significant progress   climate issues   global value   value chains   everexpanding core   worldwide chains   ministerial meeting   country policymakers   comparative advantages   drive force   domestic matters   such right   aggregate demand   step stones   kyc requirements   diagonal cumulation   empirical work   international standard   raw materials   standalone agreements   such arrangements   cost savings   regulatory certainty   international purposes   21st century   governmental jawboning   technological scale   arbitral judgment   wide lessons   systemic acceleration   web technologies   wide variation   competition alert   formal process   inward custodian   economic base   focal points   propose framework   new approaches   multilateral policymaking   local participation   project impact   country strategies   independent body   nonmultilateral agreements   new plank   norm creation   traderelated capacity   economic agreement   economic performance   public institutions   national governments55   single window   various modes   option papers   second street   ongoing loss   development performance   international aviation   national pricing   similar test   excessive provisions   secondary effect   competitive neutrality   environmental standards   great benefits   normative machinery   longterm investment   paris agreement   social policies   fund research   additional years   security considerations   trade goods   single volume   regulatory reform   poverty gap   important agreements   develop countries   global markets   regulatory coherence   high costs   detail studies   national policies   investment processes   interest countries   equitable manner   mitigation strategies   similar evidence   formal opportunities   basic research   human development   robust environment   intervene period   regional mechanisms   innovation regulation   local conditions   african growth   increase flows   economic operation   domestic mobilization   long way   relate b   senior manager   concentrate effort   large extent   several occasions   natural conditions   programme officers   interest banks   develop poverty   wide variety   many ways   conceivable region   lowincome countries   new direction   subject borders   agricultural supply   broad term   new complexity   information training   technical progress   high prices   rulesbased framework   multilateral statements   domestic levels   annual forum   recent pattern   agricultural prices   carbon budget   low ranks   e15 teams   value addition   due process   international borders   interconnect world   online platform   appellate body   specific cases   early years   sharpe cuts   free access   own economies   respective circumstances   smart policies   action orientation   product structure   contemporary policy   suboptimal allocation   private investors   international mobility   longterm imperatives   institutional mechanisms   accumulate evidence   trade system   global chains   near term   average cost   technical burdens   political feasibility   plurilateral arrangements   different parts   distinguish panel   digitallyenabled windows   logical approach   electronic signature   actionable agenda   significant resistance   linear one   accede countries   such costs   chain officers   critical plurilateral   voluntary application   medium category   foreign investment   structural reforms   replicable fashion   commercial presence   modern constraints   promotional services   new ways   particular development   establish products   economic growth   performance criteria   embed services   multiple borders   such services   international linkages   great diversification   more countries   far development   particular help   big changes   high education   regional initiatives   potential applications   great length   research initiatives   require linkages   supportive measures   restriction implications   extensive process   stubborn realities   longterm thinking   competition consequences   grow competition   differential incentives   such clubs   several years   regulatory services   environmental concerns   equitable rules   distinguish committee   network linkages   environmental provisions   grow challenge   important constituency   near allocation   external parties   same value   regulatory procedures   current levels   high agreements   global network   competition authorities   specific elements   lead performers   target value   agricultural subsidies   host countries   correspondentbanking network   product standards   topdown elements   unfinished business   economic vulnerability   substantial assistance   20th century   ldc economies   several challenges   single undertaking   technological capacities   overall package   preferential arrangements   global alert   high levels   export products   new context   reasonable interval   precede sections   international centre   grow body   productive uses   correspond directorates   twodimensional index   low productivity   single constraint   future evolution   decline terms   wide impact   regional agreements   long period   public policy   ambiguous subsidies   ongoing upgrading   value partnership   strong challenges   fiduciary practices   wide agenda   multilateral norms   voluntary adoption   current bowl   small mics   joint discussions   difficult conditions   rapid development   value systems   eminent scholars   integrate platform   regulatory cooperation   executive framework   analytic efforts   employmentintensive services   such chains   mutual implications   great efforts   additional clarity   regional communities   measurable indicators   available protection   new geographies   marine capture   similar opportunity   long term   reference paper   multilateral level   effective functioning   policy focus   financial support   major factor   competitive opportunities   good deployment   valueadded productivity   wide range   game outcome   minor share   conclude summit   global welfare   relevant provisions   specific reforms   meaningful alternative   essential character   game character   ultimate disposition   advisory centre   total trade   early successes   observer status   interface apis   regional value   intermediate goods   natural sinks   permanent exception   resource mobilization   large investors   next phase   executive groups   multilateral system   regulatory practices   available contracts   contestable markets   positive evolution   local entities   sectoral approaches   optimal evolution   progressive reintegration   domestic reforms   agricultural trade   pro principles   develop economies   recent decades   relevant metrics   specific features   supply chains   particular ways   sustainable extraction   climate regime   follow imperatives   financial crisis   capable knowledge   particular risk   traditional measures   fragment universe   open clubs   nutrition education   new standard   respective governments   fish vessels   essential institutions   regional arrangements   balance tradeoff   above measures   public agencies   combine effect   practical cooperation   fresh look   rural areas   more products   enhance platform   similar rule   important potential   export restrictions   chronic skills   quick policies   mitigation efforts   simple building   senior associate   foster synergies   change exception   recent accord   urgent action   custom payments   domestic firms   value chain   different components   particular potential   productivity gains   national income   great promise   efficient restructurings   ldc participation   constructive path   online discussions   common criteria   major increases   industrial capabilities   societal choices   international development   relevant aspects   regional fora   degradation change   adequate stewardship   major concerns   weatherrelated failures   same border   ceta agreement   positive effect   reciprocal concessions   good frameworks   publicprivate dialogue   global system   only way   conducive environment   plurilateral agreement   policy framework   such aid   modular components   individual economy   specific innovations   responsible development   tax authorities   permissible support   very terms   leastcost twodegreecelsius   firmspecific ones   major efforts   international system   wide ecosystem   certain level   economic efficiency   define subsidies   legal arrangements   most analyses   close cooperation   multilateral enterprises   new agreements   highlyintegrated economy   extensive research   chain approach   new initiatives   ebay platform   chief executive   climate policies   balance progress   open application   deep cooperation   large compacts   globalize world   finance gap   domestic policy   efficient services   such domains   cooperative mechanisms   substantive scope   coherence services   important efforts   fraudulent practices   international organizations   synthesis report   international experts   complicate progress   implicit subsidy   different countries   highgrowth lics   mix results   new submissions   future expectations   agricultural productivity   powerful example   important ways   social values   result implications   defensive policy   sustainable trade   time limits   low income   agreement negotiations   degree celsius   program interfaces   such approaches   small number   important constraint   important initiatives   political energy   national economy   result impact   development data   correspondentbanking networks   relate programmes   unfccc body   frontier technologies   national objectives   executive accord   principal demandeur   competitive abilities   administrative capacity   developmental aspects   modern services   low value   transformative aims   responsible resources   efficient use   significant extent   improve diversification   technological capabilities   seed pesticides   increase assistance   ongoing activities   technological changes   inward policies   complex products   global commons   regulatory purposes   governance response   available rd   clean technology   associate knowledge   investorstate resolution   practical steps   dynamic platform   cumulation approach   develop banks   economic transformation   good practice   new costs   potential challenges   expert group   societal priorities   extensive agenda   integrate contribution   preindustrial levels   economic institutions   skill workers   internet s   economic recession8   economic infrastructure   common vision   trade response   designate point   recognize element   presence provisions   trade issues   full disclosure   tariff schemes   technological development   multilateral rulemaking   more needs   individual countries   crossborder flows   economic model   common frameworks   domestic actions   far detail   small exporters   idea experiences   strong evidence   current calculations   common threshold   concrete proposals   global consumption   capacitybuilding requirements   recent initiatives   executive rights   longerterm insecurity   efficient functioning   national ets   national development   different rules   domestic providers   positive character   regulatory issues   last agenda   embed carbon   applicable iias   rapid globalization   global demand   financial mobilization   recent options   regulatory decisions   important proportion   agricultural market   restrictive access   unilateral reforms   global economy   dfqf programmes   business requirements   certain products   jobcreating investments   integrate manner   wto rulebook   many b   local requirements   selfreinforcing dynamic   separate rules   efficient provision   sustainable fdi   requisite institutions   dramatic increase   regional actions   wide set   development process   poverty hunger   low economies   specific set   diplomatic relations   perfect competition   fdi inflows   individual rules   large populations   food security   joint ventures   increase prevalence   lcr prohibition   past years   safe harbour   original members   track system   establish technologies   sustainable management   different groups   wide understandings   economic implications   private firms   technical assistance   service providers   net jobs   famous estimate   open agreement   available information   many factors   increase diversification   worry sign   underlie demographics   potential gains   facilitation agreement   global exports   broad concerns   conformity assessments   humanitarian food   social infrastructure   outright contraction   digital cases   propose agreements   significant space   local content   international architecture   institutional weaknesses   strong institutions   change nature   domestic terms   sovereign debt   upper countries   one development   exist frameworks   introduction introduction   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  extend approach   adopt agreement   past decades   international organization   key countries   likely terms   free trade   technological base   informal initiatives   legitimate values   national decisions   different jurisdictions   recent ministerial   forward linkages   global employment   public platform   relate mechanisms   regulatory coordination   trade regime   developmental benefits   much process   fundamental objective   second phase   contentious issues   broad integration   several factors   climate mitigation   international flows   continue improvement   public second   foreign level   temporary presence   economic initiatives   foreign assistance   economic diversification   significant ways   much time   support levels   exist technologies   strategic vision   trade distortions   standalone agreement   personal data   recent years   great clarity   high minimis   good modernize   strategic networks   incoming fdi   large initiatives   potential challenge   independent agency   consumptionbased emissions   problem studies   final consumption   various sorts   foreign investors   business community   international competitors   informal discussions   sustainable programme   such communication   compliance capacity   early stage   national committees   regulatory checks   transatlantic partnership   prevalent kinds   energy waiver   single set   sustainable population   regional engagement   regulatory systems   particular ftas   key driver   new engines   first period   first instance   several ways   practice adoption   powerful force   unilateral action   available report   traditional areas   dynamic growth88   base policies   important steps   significant level   network steps   small packets   rise prices   different categories   many instances   domestic products   multiple scales   labour shortages   direct investment   financial sector   own staff   procedural efficiency   significant indicator   explicit aspiration   wto programme   significant increase   international markets   systemic view   good understanding   professional services   revise privacy   general principles   economic gains   important implications   successful economies   regional platforms   global plurilateral   good efforts   new products   institutional aspects   electronic commerce   high quality   capacitybuilding efforts   investment climate   increase liquidity   applicable agreement   much improvement   progress digitization   essential question   multilateral framework   good chance   online windows   good needs   global second   herfindahl index   determine schemes   new laws   board fsb   chain practices   worth option   interoperable network   asian economies   additional duties   economic cooperation   financial officer   similar degree   consumption level   precede chapters   digital trade   various contexts   shortterm visa   domestic policies   effective standards   landlock countries   employment crisis   agricultural fund   develop authorities   employmentintensive industries   foreign imposition   regulatory transparency   sme regulations   different set   electronic transaction   public safety   subsaharan countries   hospitable environment   datum systems   legal implications   available index   common concern   standardize goods   net importers   concentric circles   institutional index   globalize economy   anthropogenic activity   many people   international investment   sustainable summit   modest support   national governance   strategic analysis   certain jurisdictions   current constraints   close linkages   specific topics   much leeway   electronic transmissions   coherence policy   overall strategies   global efficiency   business timorleste   deep analysis   country poverty   own analysis   sustainable module   stable availability   financial markets   more impacts   international companies   great stability   common floor   legal expertise   obvious links   prompt costing   national authorities   wto settlement   follow manner   natural resource   unreported iuu   slow expansion   specific treaties   food insecurity   ictsd officers   very nature   similar subsidies   structural reasons   small packages   private finance   various types   firm participation   current disciplines   uneven participation   various levels   specific focus   vast agenda   domestic capabilities   localization requirements   emerge challenges   technological innovation   important role   corporate adherence   various integration   multilateral disciplines   vertical policies   standardsoriented demand   great challenges   e15 initiative   private rights   global expansion   regional integration   open framework   regulatory licensing   major implications   regulatory framework   sustainable impact   legal treaties   sustainable consumption   bilateral arrangements   wide participation   gatt article   broadbased progress   longterm strategy   expand deployment   social objectives   ultimate enterprises   integrate buyers   regulatory processes   lowincome countries65   indigenous communities   french economies   complementary steps   new dimension   outside counsel   authoritative body   investment inflows   much revenue   key steps   fundamental capabilities   viable approaches   critical objectives   bind constraints   high volume   national climate   global priorities   helpful tool   governmental experts   exist rules   domestic resource   complex landscape   custom declarations   sustainable flows   international network   global agriculture   global merchandise   trade prospects   various fora   foreign firms   environmental challenges   enhance capacity   system approach   certain ways   effective system   barrier environment   overarch dialogue   broad understanding   administrative practices   rural development   wto paper   traderelated assistance   investor uncertainty   due agriculture   positive effects   next decade   large increases   global stocks   resource challenges   new technologies   climate change   similar rules   different stages   far ideageneration   lehmann officers   exist agreements   work group   national regulations   new ones   national levels   current rate   capital technology   national scale   essential space   support programme   recent attention   wide acceptance   dedicate chapters   longterm challenges   certain services   broad set   potent force   available tools   wtoled aid   overall criteria   broad frame   cooperative ecosystem   various regions   digitize commerce   past trade   close interrelationship   several rule   come years   common model   economic policy   low nutrition   antitrust authority   financial networks   specific sectors   industrial policies   great quantity   longerterm option   administrative requirements   available institutions   large ends   such exports   domestic support   old ones   economic landscape   new efficiencies   regulatory system   judicial systems   practical implementation   lead firms   concrete agenda   second access   traderelated building   press challenges   financial entities   sanitary schemes   critical mass   social standards   climate measures   various criteria   conventional oda   require scaleup   local structure   proper classification   sufficient specificities   wide economy   line coverage   hard infrastructure   multinational enterprises   clear definition   technological progress   responsible frameworks   international investors   environmental protection   confidencebuilding commitments   large companies   new areas   productive sectors   crucial elements   supply officers   political economy   global options   preferential agreements   measure agreement   bind rates   aggregate information   balance integration   international institutions   virtuous circle   exist products   global level   relevant initiatives   future negotiations   network world   institutional investors   recent agreement   new economy   such countries   basic science   multilateral statement   public system   restrictive rules   main clusters   national capacities   considerable soul   current context   outgo measures   environment conditions   average temperatures   national jurisdictions   protection agencies   rich economies   coherence years   duplication costs   african countries   public tests   vertical sector   powerful catalyst   flow commitment   sustainable development   full point   ambitious solution   international action   same period   relate policy   contemporary concerns   particular agenda   local capacity   infrastructure gap   global production   regulatory objectives   important personnel   global allocation   traderelated measures   great diversity   massive scaleup   follow chapters   fundamental legitimacy   wto framework   same vein   skill persons   overfish stocks   special attention   exist laws   valueadded activities   natural disasters   limit groups   clean fisheries   capacitybuilding assistance   broad focus   multilateral rounds   development cooperation   important regulation   structural vulnerability   trade costs   consequence competition   major transformations   combat change   middleincome trap   sector cooperation   corporate programmes   private platform   improve regulations   internet access   important objective   bureaucratic sense   modular fashion   finite resources   comparative advantage   special treatment   technical committee   international frameworks   executive officer   such objectives   international developments   wtocommitted conditions   continue aftermath   detail set   development expertise   strategic thinking   systematic assessment   highervalueadded activities   exist framework   maximum level   regional activity   minimum network   technical personnel   global standards   scientific body   update articulation   modern activities   future progress   compatible box   minor focus   relevant criteria   traderelated rules   deep integration   technical regulations   environmental degradation   differentiate capabilities   preferential access   rigorous evaluation   domestic subsidies   land use   significant proportion   subnational jurisdictions   international integration   network economy   international targets   longterm review   public expenditure   orient coalitions   undistorted market   international cooperation   publicprivate platform   sustainable levels   national systems   institutionaleconomic issues   additional finance   paper clarifications   recent reversal   sensitive goods   explosive environments   transformative actions   follow policy   own authorities   integrate initiatives   specific areas   particular steps   conceptual framework   custom forms   current ad   comprehensive agreement   business models   new agreement   broad zone   sustainable infrastructure   economic activity   commercial operations   severe crisis   socalled trap   great efficiencies   rich resource   policymaking prerogatives   commercial decisions   formal institutions   reach change   national fisheries   legal frameworks   international collection   new vision   production level   investment risk   many markets   international interactions   precede section   key constituencies   digital rules   country governments   catch fish   interpretative understandings   indirect taxes   competent agents   disguise restrictions   small economies   longterm trajectory   plurilateral cooperation   broad requests   responsible practices   price wedge   balance modernize   future allocation   nonoecd economies   short studies   automate system   small groups   modular multilateralization   responsible conduct   lead thinkers   shift framework   large strategies   latent advantages   several cases   latter part   minimum level   good deal   grow importance   notable progress   free flows   consultative committee   significant implications   necessary steps   few decades   close alignment   international programme   global trade   investor protection   joint investigation   enhance transparency   regional market   great mitigation   certain values   regional chains   cooperative network   sustainable facilitation   broad categories   worldwide trade   international coherence   expert groups   entrepreneurial endeavours   critical areas   quotafree access   open information   additional space   domestic efficiency   production trade   illegal iuu   marginalize regions   socially topics   multiple agreements   various measures   consultative status   commercial complexity   entire economy   affect industries   legal clarity   good balance   valueadded measures   domestic treatment   select indices   common trade   twodegreecelsius rise   simple discrimination   nonresident suppliers   tremendous contribution   plurilateral agreements   foreign capital   practical ways   financial returns   most nations   tradediverting blocs   share knowledge   major benefits   successive waves   quad countries   international regime   insulate policies   action schemes   new initiative   technological sophistication   new platform   share imperatives   legal mandates   important source   domestic conditions   cultural heritage   commercial technologies   countless arrangements   important progress   bilateral agreements   research services   regular interactions   specific information   add consideration   benefit access   similar approaches   significant barrier   legal services   certain measures   appropriate balance   basic rules   official programmes   individual decisions   fossil fuels   formal norm   carbon taxes   sustainable contents   lookingthe custodian   regional efforts   foreign affairs   apec framework   broad range   grow amount   private standards   relate parties   domestic competitiveness   valueadded products   global compacts   financial instruments   national frameworks   clear policies   narrow base   various stakeholders   wide inclusion   centre stage   farm supports   trade impact   price spikes   traderelated development   effective planning   primary products   trade portal   good way   reliable source   trade agreement   enable environments   considerable complexity   minimum threshold   several parties   business operations   create markets   creative suite   rise concern   net countries   different relationships   national mechanisms   liquefy gas   global context   previouslyagreed intentions   numerous opportunities   unfccc mechanism   judicialsovereign risks   multilateral negotiation   appropriate limits   productive applications   positive outcome   underemployed workers   national initiatives   specific agenda   main focus   project level   large decisions   effective participants   ambitious actions   own machinery   economy rankings   regional bureaus   strategic review   publicprivate financing   good second   clean technologies   increase capabilities   carbon emissions   domestic value   educational profit   international disciplines   positive mitigation   domestic industries   important aspect   individual contributions   foster country   national actions   financial institutions   potential issues   digital issues   solar systems   important shifts   hoc body   propose principles   second section   facto regime   inconsistent agencies   plurilateral clubs   global demographics   jure access   economic determinants   sectoral agreement   certain degree   standard improvements   relate decision   function authority   different initiatives   civil aviation   territorial emissions   natural persons   emerge trade   abovementioned indices   enhance access   domestic institutions   wide geometry   fullyfledged arrangement   tax system   interactive dialogues   insufficient attention   low monitoring   fishery subsidies   legal space   information gathering   multiple challenges   significant boost   scientific capacities   vast reservoir   arbitral level   several steps   broad linkages   investment agreement   such work   high products   gat provisions   many countries   microeconomic evidence   palpable unease   economic shocks60   financial integration   diverse products   strike feature   notification requirement   average rate   encourage assistance   adopt measures   positive implications   fix price   wto mandate   political realities   current location   holistic assessment   fundamental obligations   informal interactions   horizontal environment   technology agreement   agricultural support   dramatic transformation   automatic exchange   international conference   significant barriers   concentrate nature   international framework   major countries   relate issues   national space   democratic process   add research   traderelated implications   normative coherence   extensive communication   weak growth   business portals   agricultural products   regional institutions   secretariat directorates   develop economies3   global finance   international context   hoc analysis   increase use   transport communications   wto code   supplemental frameworks   true table   impoverish populations   international networks   national employment   high activities   country officials   new efforts   third conference   important instruments   increase aid   such products   nonbinding commitments   specific effort   sectoral initiatives   particular work   rate agency   longstanding challenges   strategic guidance   large part   age depletion   new constraint   full phaseout   political perception   maritime shipping   productionbased approaches   executive summary   exist disputes96h   sustainable level   national policy   level capabilities   artificial advantage   large numbers   improve conditions   market power   finite nature   relevant challenges   international businesses   possible focus   consumptionbased accounting   wto aid   systemic implications   national processes   capability sauvant   global rankings   due course   principal means   comprehensive set   official oda   public bodies   international support   develop officials   country measures   specific networks   international chain   marine fish   interconnect grids   unilateral pricing   effective policies   key sectors   global firms   development impact   major changes   adverse effects   full payment   great coherence   green box   international standards   relate planning   small enterprises   new networks   horizontal policies   international shipping   inclusive roadmap   many sectors   http creativecommonsorglicensesby   important benefits   scoping exercise   complex policy   principal source   institutional position   longterm goals   lead experts   crosscut forces   academic business   great sense   additional transaction   full access   additional products   dominant position   practical solutions   security challenges   streamline standards   international platform   wealthy counterparts   new participants   advisory council   blend financing   policy reform   bilateral development   relevant strategies   patchwork quilt   operate context   significant slowdown   international conditions   small states   large subsidisers   big obstacle   socioeconomic conditions   climate actions   legal system   total value   available resources   environmental services   social responsibility   shadow pricing   global crisis   powerful stimulus   regional arrangement   international matters   global member   early 1970s   increase role
Actions:   establish moratorium   promote scaleup   spread practices   provide roadmap   support group   inform strategies   construct agenda   expand array   enable eti   stimulate development   do research   insert country   ensure considerations   encompass need   coordinate transfer   bring products   reduce supports   obtain etc   promote trade   integrate themselves   implement set   apply rtas   address emissions   launch understanding   expand inclusivity   embrace geometry   serve ends   enable participation   take advantage   promote assistance   include chapters   learn sharing   provide transparency   address situations   bear repetition   include services   develop agreement   boost growth   raise capacity   enhance capabilities   defend themselves   address terms   consider pros   involve integration   escape capital   share building   increase diversification   achieve sdgs   present challenges   reap access   encourage establishment   handicap effectiveness   build expertise   drive mitigation   try 52   innovationbased adjustments   prevent corruption   make difference   represent investors   create transaction   accelerate development   implement value   boost groups   empower directorates   support communication   productivityenhancing institutions   scale practices   anticipate harbour   designate monopolies   exceed levels   extend liberalization   disperse 36   steer evolution   provide input   enable progress   diversify economies   view copy   reduce subsidies   take that   accord benefits   render agenda   suggest following   develop economies   sustain competitiveness   maintain confidence   resolve experience   bi fsb   seek behaviour   eliminate tariffs   buy 96   encourage acceptance   establish platforms   develop authorities   govern transport   contain proliferation   rise innovation   invite authorities   facilitate partnerships   apply these   induce policies   impact use   help countries   create category   devise policies   require services   organize review   low costs   spend time   move places   extend reach   leave community   confirm s   include monitoring   propose development   use approach   interpret significance   require emphasis   raise productivity   adopt provisions   identify products   create jobs   fall studies   provide example   strengthen system   affect strategy   offer products   cover number   adapt regime   increase stocks   diffuse digitization   increase recommendation   strengthen capacity   establish relationship   establish floor   expand scope   maintain character   make proposals   offer range   generate spillovers   boost countries   diffuse progress   stand chance   address carbon   require stream   establish zone   manage impacts   coordinate both   encourage process   underscore importance   establish rules   transfer property   improve capabilities   use internet   enhance ability   average rate   facilitate participation   open opportunities   take needs   enforce them   establish process   take furtherance   simplify policies   encourage inclusion   value much   develop toolkits   carve path   pursue efforts   require mnes   launch initiative   minimize complications   require parties   facilitate investment   address fishing   form clubs   increase investment   address problems   tackle baseerosion   deploy array   offer set   strengthen involvement   prescribe policies   enhance relevance   undertake reforms   avoid race   produce products   expand assistance   arise group   aid mics   find evidence   strengthen challenge   increase benefits   boost delivery   reinforce aspect   take account   require modification   obtain number   propose increases   dump prices   raise issues   welcome scrutiny   boost assistance   foster initiatives   improve transparency   assemble evidence   determine methods   take view   facilitate improvements   move goods   follow suit   return stocks   improve terms   demand payment   broaden them   add barrier   implement measures   reap benefits   rebuild trust   establish group   leverage internet   conclude agreements   thank ictsd   propel it   facilitate cooperation   improve access   facilitate flows   take importance   conduct review   express appreciation   implement recommendation   draft statements   clarify provisions   develop agenda   attract investment   improve capacity   provide countries   complement agreement   address them   target level   provide jobs   include standard   bring experts   capture carbon   update paper   demonstrate degree   implement pricing   match processes   customize inputs   build awareness   drive circle   develop vision   improve standards   dominate economies   imply opportunity   announce plans   strengthen transparency   implement etss   do rankings   facilitate meeting   implement that   broaden scope   assume sense   ensure response   make outcome   require number   accelerate counterparts   raise costs   provide 20   undertake investments   develop framework   confront challenges   take lead   antidumping investigations   create complexity   reinvigorate manufacturing   reflect inflows   require approach   stimulate streamlining   promote fdi   identify areas   enable number   improve understanding   concern commons   participate approach   make contracts   require ability   strengthen capabilities   address issues   reduce exports   implement standards   complete rounds   eliminate risks   promote elements   know requirements   strengthen coherence   strengthen competition   evaluate implications   increase quality   consider issues   diffuse technology   offer analysis   show specialization   serve markets   catalyze investment   underpin 65   create conditions   provide recourse   provide status   pose question   reduce distortions   fit particular   convene experts   approximate regulations   finance implementation   commitment clarifications   encounter resistance   change composition   require support   establish models   offer gains   dominate exports   finetune regulation   regulate competition   deliver agreement   address range   enable development   identify practices   monitor requirements   suppose phaseout   form zone   strike balance   bring revenue   enforce standards   limit access   connect businesses   address trend   cover infrastructure   stillevolving systems   benchmark organisation   create much   inject level   streamline operations   consume ones   discourage overuse   strengthen aspects   bring strategies   lose legitimacy   reduce countries   strengthen facility   introduce transfer   sell goods   accelerate upgrading   mobilize 15   put that   do that   constitute regulation   leverage sources   recognize taxes   protect information   apply rules   adopt 100   antidumping regulation   do portals   expand crosscountry   increase financing   build understandings   generate progress   develop capabilities   encourage consistency   influence risk   enhance impact   empower programme   produce increases   raise range   avoid spikes   expand presence   enable conditions   develop strategies   deploy ldcs   imply presence   identify priorities   restrict ability   develop standards   increase efforts   exhibit specificities   agree 41   support implementation   refine metrics   integrate dimensions   house bank   bring conformity   negotiate parties   enable transition   ensure mobilization   use interval   regulate economy   widen set   imply investments   make series   embody it   coordinate change   facilitate access   become participants   find partner   facilitate process   implement commitments   bear fruit   vardhana associate   yield progress   extend article   prescribe changes   negotiate agenda   increase gdp   require focus   prefer 47   negotiate improvements   address concern   support trade   develop system   fulfil objective   improve databases   show importance   develop knowledge   suspend work   rise diversity   design status   attract technology   address concerns   reverse expansion   require level   dominate policies   operate agenda   boost benchmarking   provide alternative   guide ldcs   mobilize finance   reflect realities   strengthen development   promote production   implement changes   introduce limits   exert influence   create agreement   assist insertion   evaluate consequences   launch process   promote understanding   improve prospects   suggest ways   establish practices   expand regulations   keep concerns   increase reporting   digitallyenabled exports   address system   reconcile themselves   identify opportunities   strengthen shifts   elevate ambition   develop officials   expose harvesting   support establishment   set 57   calculate gains   opt that   contain disciplines   generate gains   provide skills   reduce share   provide focus   maximize contribution   raise questions   improve technologies   issue report   expand cooperation   phase prohibition   andor agency   show some   anticipate challenges   experience slowdown   measure performance   sponsoringmentoring board   value certainty   export development   take approach   strengthen role   promote addition   develop b   low standards   erode confidence   provide points   achieve benefits   target firms   expand competition   vardhana centre   increase use   expand coverage   evaluate aspects   develop centres   support commitment   take decade   countervail measures   reset trajectory   msmes access   increase countries   create that   create fund   undermine value   facilitate roadmap   spur action   imply transformations   address hunger   create waiver   expand agreement   involve lcrs   take actions   underpin development   require elements   reduce concerns   pay duties   implement needs   constitute protectionism   reinforce trend   create programme   improve regime   address 51   simplify conduct   create windows   cover sector   create framework   prevent parties   represent those   compound studies   expand facilitation   close market   aggravate crisis   meet requirements   steer transition   improve roads   see resurgence   calculate level   create uncertainty   encompass activities   provide training   implement programmes   create points   upgrade technologies   stimulate dialogue   prioritize them   combine components   underpin move   consider matters   lead firms   increase cooperation   achieve acceleration   address change   strengthen contribution   extend benefits   lose billion   address poverty   convey information   extend access   convert prohibition   develop data   conduct constraints   require recognition   include fragment   lack expertise   yield efficiencies   develop norms   develop emerging   improve conditions   advance rulemaking   make declarations   encourage disinvestment   share information   plug gap   rule challenge   issue licences   guide construction   maintain share   boost following   build 24   limit ability   create tool   need efforts   represent position   improve hardware   retain enterprises   open services   reinforce process   determine 17   make approaches   bring commitments   avoid liability   grant management   enable countries   spur development   need 40   support boost   create costs   enjoy benefits   use range   affirm permissibility   benefit ictsd   cover negotiations   explain transparency   meet policies   increase engagement   integrate economies   accredit dimension   create blueprint   adapt wto   alleviate concerns   increase impact   create group   address number   operate framework   include programme   involve approaches   consolidate interactions   register performance   export taxes   adopt decision   strengthen introduction   prevent race   scale investment   enshrine set   ensure returns   develop capital   maximize countries   make efforts   create platform   imply need   develop countries7   protect investor   attain coverage   underpin legitimacy   scale cooperation   buy vessels   support windows   support customers   establish certainty   reach agreements   use platform   release apis   asses progress   provide billion   revive form   preserve space   achieve objective   involve organizations   provide source   access chains   provide recommendation   include index   certify that   reduce diversification   strengthen commons   offshoring structures   address distortions   undermine opportunities   leaf better   tradediverting blocs   incorporate them   ensure provision   engage leaders   give 60   diffuse scale   implement proposal   accelerate efforts   verify roo   reinstate version   require little   penalize use   release interfaces   recruit organization   initiate negotiations   accelerate countries   face system   increase visibility   expand infrastructure   meet objective   adopt threshold   combat change   propose ways   adherence practices   influence behaviour   increase efficiency   promote development   drive deeper   adjudicate disputes   produce development   continue pattern   progress scope   identify functioning   encourage countries   notify measures   implement minimis   increase evidence   expand gathering   develop assistance   increase mobilization   achieve delivery   generate costs   clarify initiatives   help 33   indicate criteria   enter markets   have what   create exception   prioritize transfer   require capabilities   inform settlement   coordinate sharing   link them   couple process   create environment   implement reforms   involve groups   explore opportunities   use that   challenge welfare   include budget   provide data   include framework   reinforce universality   enhance efficiency   bring services   assist officials   offer path   follow leadership   use ii   facilitate flow   reiterate primacy   change circumstances   advance convergence   increase complementarities   combat challenge   feed 50   try variety   prevent them   expand opportunity   extend aid   undertake activities   support science   determine ldcs   seek interactions   resolve mozambique77   propose creation   build nature   require infrastructure   serve interests   improve allocation   pursue scaleup   limit celsius   develop mechanisms   improve competitiveness   strengthen institutions   create dynamic   stimulate look   scale application   facilitate trade   strengthen sauvant   enhance flows   agree waiver   increase them   export goods   facilitate those   socalled contributions   update system   boost output   provide foundation   reduce cost   facilitate links   raise probability   identify inputs   include jurisdictions   recommend clarifications   identify number   prevent imposition   implement agreement   build provisions   face contraction   achieve momentum   find ways   bind wto   ethe 15initiative   address side   enable flows   safeguard legitimacy   create goods   capacityenhancing subsidies   encourage dynamic   encompass mechanisms   enhance transparency   amount contribution   organize initiative   promote mitigation   avert trap   provide mandate   include councils   outline agenda   enable differentiation   depend alia   attract investments   suggest factors   deliver goods   meet demand   sponsor bank   maximize access   accelerate poverty   utilize technologies   reduce constraints   develop steps   reach agreement   propose agenda   measure vulnerability   form chain   prefer set   support extraction   require production   compromise action   provide benefits   lag growth   set arrangements   do business   face challenges   support development   restore relevance   introduce laws   combat degradation   improve coordination   implement kind   give availability   include ldcs   provide illustration   circumvent provisions   protect safety   involve movement   navigate transition   produce contribution   adopt windows   use framework   address scarcity   require deal   drive growth   retain control   implement slate   pursue objectives   affect aspiration   enable providers   implement initiatives   develop articulation   impose measures   provide environment   ldc face   reduce frictions   restrict rtas   foster innovation4748   process deliberations   protect industry   assist awareness   address insecurity   name few   yield gains   traderelated arrangements   reaffirm intentions   reflect capabilities   receive grant   change methods   generate levels   destroy 500000   offshoring standardization   encompass protection   restrict mechanism   require communication   include components   generate payments   selfassociating coalitions   change it   develop governments   contain report   improve diversity   integrate sources   develop initiatives   improve stability   maintain momentum   pursue sense   work license   reduce emissions   influence course   succeed 28   change criterion   pose barrier   establish institutions   remedy situation   play that   bring proposal   trade rulebook   establish centre   reach goal   include singh   include smes   ensure inclusivity   implement countries   operate exporters   resolve insolvency   serve ecosystem   support diversification   figure relationship   affect competition   target policies   deliver benefits   provide number   reinvigorate growth   improve effectiveness   operate chains   increase generation   deploy oda   dominate focus   make share   promote linkages   implement rules   strengthen legitimacy   copy products   encourage flow   survey businesses   connect capital   secure ruling   improve performance   support what   create code   include commitments   draw lessons   participate report   cover processes   resolve them   take stock   minimize impact   reach level   take failure   provide links   improve efficiency   impinge initiative   explain rationale   quote material   strengthen capacities   stimulate exports   reduce friction   spur modernization   address practices   explore provision   link smes   increase circles   move chain   close today71   reduce existing   set dynamic   upgrade infrastructure   destroy result   promote coherence   streamline processes   increase awareness   encourage investment   exist information   combat activity   enhance understanding   liberalize sector   support objectives   develop policymakers   address other   require more   require improvements   implement rtas   create rules   manage entry   facilitate creation   encourage policies   make agreements   strengthen practices   address alia   require clarification   include senegal   discipline restrictions   encourage inclusivity   provide services   resist commitments   allow flow   receive guidance   create frictions   take part   support security   augment capacity   investmentrelated development   emerge products   expand number   neutralize emissions   intensify access   restrict rights   strengthen monitoring   decelerate organisation   resist deals   require costing   include mechanisms   extend terms   deepen research   countervail agreement   shift economy   develop markets   enable account   recommend ways   expand services   explore integration   constitute action   pave way   add certainty   create shortages   restrict measures   expand use   update price   align rules   lie set   require agencies   boost architecture29b   meet standards   allow subsidies   promote levelling   protect privacy   supply services   persuade lawmakers   establish levels   cover investment   coordinate efforts   propagate investment   limit effects   play role   produce savings   recognize interrelationship   lend expertise   increase transparency   affect access   improve movement   effect transaction   represent loss   support modernize   affect trade   accord status   build linkages   level field   catalyse reintegration   understand requirements   address approaches   create space   realize benefits   create harbour   improve linkages   receive remittances   devise principles   steer them   use system   update policies   expand agreements   face set   support building   conduct statement   build ground   acknowledgement coconveners   provide tool   produce goods   undertake commitments   improve frameworks   ethe references   negotiate terms   ensure computerization   develop index   require businesses   lower wedge   improve most   raise question   regulate trade   adopt apec   face governments   innovate matter   produce definition   rationalize arrangements   soil interaction   need establishment   value that   boost rents   set reform   bring analysts   mandate initiation   increase payoff   correspondentbanking availability   embrace ecosystem   increase diffusion   include principles   face test   assist ldcs   enable policies   create system   outpace growth   prompt soul   modernize quilt   improve productivity   launch portal   draw range   jeopardize process   create clarity   receive attention   use pricing   establish environment   adapt technology   host initiatives   increase collection   develop areas   frame policies   hold temperatures   build buildings   shape patterns   increase productivity   dampen exposure   amend agreement   develop strategy   improve quality   increase tax   improve support   support upgrading   commend it   appear part   support adaptation   support investment   provide guidance   assume role   give index   scale financing   do ci   knowledge importance   exchange information   include lack   analyse nature   improve environment   require kind   develop frameworks   push agreement   identify exports   flow 45   deepen trade   unlock investment   exist challenge   face competition   learn adoption   confront each   provide assistance   incur costs   increase pace   cover gap   increase emissions   strengthen frameworks   involve years   lead centre   give 020   expand trade   improve abilities   represent tradeoff   create network   yield papers   improve cooperation   provide support   institutionalize 80   increase ability   create value   address consumption   strengthen agenda   facilitate application   examine extent   facilitate transparency   create platforms   sustain growth   constitute measures   expand efficiency   enhance cooperation   dominate markets   maintain network   enlist system   increase complexity   provide platform   establish platform   send letter   measure education   appreciate ecosystem   overlook economies   change framework   offer reservoir   join agreement   link ldcs   provide agenda   tackle change   support cets   target carbon   await conclusion   create process   make set   identify proliferation   enhance capacity   drive action   strengthen hand   implement objectives   combat stocks   put rodrik   integrate services   reduce magnitude   address failures   reduce vulnerability   drive change   mean nuts   establish agreement   extend preferences   boost sophistication   improve framework   convene groups   change nature   resolve disputes   eliminate barriers   create momentum   require agreement   attract fdi   address iuu   influence environment   avoid use   map chains   support collection   create index   address aspects   bring solutions   promote aid   use power   raise capacities   adapt itself   make information   establish fund   protect planet   carry commitments   expand mandates   generate uncertainty   push flows   involve consultations   include economies   create possibility   diminish fisheries   coordinate countries   address problem   complement 88   generate agenda   reduce activity   build capabilities   enable trade   apply initiatives   pool assistance   strengthen systems   serve purpose   halve system   meet criteria   involve wto   take initiative   encounter barriers   embrace frame   broaden focus   entitle future   define future   make progress   maximize potential   diffuse trade   start timorleste   provide basis   establish procedures   inform countries   establish network   complement efforts   help upgrading   adopt reforms   increase understanding   encourage implementation   commission panels   put understanding   place patents   tasking organization   encourage creation   increase spillovers   provide direction   undertake exercise   reduce costs   span range   provide opportunities   support deployment   expand application   strengthen requirement   obtain visa   extend agreement   host investment   implement project   create aid   capture elements   prevail policies   maintain environment   affect flows   underpin trade   express opinions   illustrate need   complete forms   adopt this   increase certainty   halve number   upgrade technology   extend disciplines   address objectives   document implications   offer smes   antidumping schemes   trade diversion   establish frameworks   target behaviour   share experiences   complement approaches   reshape models   increase coverage   pose challenges   aid 82   form blueprint   equip it   move stage   develop plan   reduce barriers   create links   lose measure   see geometry   take place   consider direction   propose set   create potential   develop proposals   establish partnership   bridge gap   harness capabilities   facilitate work   emphasize role   diversify base   validate process   rationalize universe   build mass   transform context   integrate orientation   change alert   accelerate issues   deepen cooperation   provide guarantees   enhance sets   boost levels   stimulate papers   assess functioning   require rules   exist multiplication   protect participation   structure regulations   establish coherence   trade agreements   include number   set priorities   confirm capacity   strengthen cooperation   extend negotiations   acquire mastery   leaf everyone   ensure security   enable impact   concern subsidies   salute group   strengthen case   require commitment   ensure availability   reflect particularities   reduce ability   combine dialogue   strengthen climate   face that   classify subsidies   enable assessment   keep developments   establish practice   promote approach   make choices   contain services   issue permits   enable improvements   establish linkages   implement technologies   provide indication   involve parties   play communications   provide information   concern issue   benefit idb   take root   enforce objectives   strengthen chains   provide opportunity   identify ways   conduct assessments   convert results   move centre   eschew requirements   realize efforts   translate improved   combine improvements   view creativecommonsorglicensesby   make improvement   change laws   fuel subsidies   increase exchange   incorporate use   decrease time   include heterogeneity   identify improvements   reduce uncertainty

Other Attributes

This section lists the details about pathway-specific attributes.